The Use of Japanese Synonymous Verbs GIVE

A Corpus-based Study

  • I Gede Oeinada Japanese Department, Faculty of Humanities, Udayana University
  • Ni Luh Sutjiati Beratha Udayana University
  • I Nengah Sudipa Udayana University
  • Made Sri Satyawati Udayana University
Keywords: Token frequency, Collocation, Semantic prosody, Synonymy, Japanese verb


The current paper presents the synonym of the verb GIVE which in Japanese has at least five synonymous words, namely ataeru, ageru, kureru, kizou suru, and kifu suru. It applied a qualitative descriptive method combined with corpus linguistics. Synonyms of these verbs were observed based on the frequency of their use in written and oral languages ​​in two Japanese corpora. Furthermore, the collocation of each verbs was also being observed. Based on observations on the frequency of use, it is known that these five verbs have differences in the variety of languages ​​used, namely: kizou suru have the lowest frequency of use in written registers. Meanwhile, based on observations on the collocation, depending on the context, these synonymous verbs cannot be used interchangeably. It can, therefore, be concluded that these five synonymous verbs GIVE cannot completely replace each other. There are some usage limitations in the presence of each of these verbs.

Author Biographies

Ni Luh Sutjiati Beratha , Udayana University

Ni Luh Sutjiati Beratha is a professor in Semantics at the English Department Faculty of Arts Udayana University was graduated from Australian universities.  She was completed her master program at the Department of Linguistics, Monash University Melbourne Australia in 1989, and Ph.D. degree was gained from the Australian National University (ANU) Canberra Australia in 1992.  She has occupied positions as: Secretary of Udayana University Language Centre in 1996 – 1997; then in 1998 – 2000 as the Secretary of School of Graduate Studies Udayana University; from 2000 – 2006 she was the Deputy Director of Financial Affair of School of Graduate Studies Udayana University, and from 2006 – January 2010 was a Deputy Director of Academic Affair of School of Graduate Studies Udayana University.  She was the Dean of the Faculty of Arts Udayana University from 2015 until 2019, and has published books, dictionaries, and other publications.  Her interest is conducting research on ‘New Englishes’ used by tourism workers in Bali.  She was selected as the best lecturer that occupied the first position at Udayana University in 1994, and as the best presenter in research in 2011 given by Directorate general of National Research Centre and Social Services of Indonesian Republic.

I Nengah Sudipa, Udayana University

I Nengah Sudipa is a Professor in Linguistics since 1 Nov 2006 having supervised a number of undergraduate, magister as well Ph. D students. He entered the English Department, Faculty of Letters Udayana University in 1974, continued to take Magister program in Linguistics Department, Monash University Melbourne Australia (1985-1987). He  graduated from the Doctoral Program of  Linguistics  in Udayana University (2004). He occupied the English Department Secretary, The vice Dean responsible for  Administration and Finance, the chairman of  Doctoral Program of Linguistics, Udayana University, and his  current position is the chairman of the Faculty Senate. His research interests are Semantics and Psycholinguistics and have published a number of various books dealing with Balinese Verbs, Semantics, Microlinguistics and Bahasa Indonesia for International students.

Made Sri Satyawati, Udayana University

Made Sri Satyawati is an associate professor in Udayana University. She obtained her Ph.D. in linguistics from Udayana University. She is interested in syntax study. She has published many scientific researches, such as “Grammatical Analysis of Balinese Adjectives”, “Morphosyntax of Balinese Reciprocal Construction”, and so on.


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How to Cite
Oeinada, I. G., Beratha , N. L. S., Sudipa, I. N., & Satyawati, M. S. (2021). The Use of Japanese Synonymous Verbs GIVE. The International Journal of Social Sciences World (TIJOSSW), 3(01), 15-23. Retrieved from