The Irregular Migration and Security Challenges in North Western Nigeria

Trends, Issues and the Way Forward

  • Yunusa Uba Muhammad Bayero University, Kano
Keywords: Irregular Migration, Security Challenges, National Security, Migrants, Nigeria

Abstract

Irregular migration is the migration of people across national borders in a way that violates the immigration laws of the destination country. Recently, it has been noted that there is a rising trends in irregular migration worldwide, especially from poorer to richer countries. Most migrants within and outside Africa are irregular migrants. However, those found in Nigeria appear to be on the increasing in the recent time especially in North Western region. The purpose of this paper is to examine the issue of irregular migration and its effects on Nigeria’s national security with particular reference to North West region, and with a view of providing suggestions on how the security challenges faced in the country could be addressed. Thus, the paper began with presenting an historical and conceptual background of the issue of irregular migration and security challenges in Nigeria. The trends and issues of irregular migration and security challenges in North-Western Nigeria were reasonably discussed. It then reviewed the causes of irregular migration. It specifically dwelt extensively on the impacts and consequences of irregular migration on social, economic, political and security in north-western Nigeria. In the light of all these, recommendations were proffered as a way forward for reducing insecurity challenges in the northwestern part of the country and the nation at large.

References

Adebakin, M.A. & Raimi, L. (2012). National Security Challenges and Sustainable Economic Development: Evidence from Nigeria. Journal of Studies in Social Studies, 1(1), 11-29.

Adeola, G. L., & Oluyemi, F. (2012). The Political and Security Implications of Cross Border Migration between Nigeria and Her Francophone Neighbours. International Journal of Social Science Tomorrow, 1(3), 1-9.

Afolayan, A. (2009). Migration in Nigeria: A Country Profile 2009. International Organization for Migration (IOM). Geneva: IOM Publications.

Alkasim, I. (2018). Impact of Pendular Migration on Family Welfare in Katsina State, Nigeria. Unpublished Materials, Department of Adults Education and Community Services, Bayero University, Kano.

Ani, K.J. (2010). National Security in Nigeria: Issues and Challenges for Human Capital Development. Unpublished Paper Presented at the Annual Lit Conference Organized by The Lit Organization: Ladies of the Ivory Tower held at Enugu State University of Science and Technology, Enugu from 11th -15th October, 2010.

Anofi. D. (2009.August 22). 3,719 Nigerians Awaits Deportation 52 on death row-Federal Government. The Nation Newspaper.

Anuforo, E., (2006, May 22). Immigration to get arms, Udeh sets agenda for officers. The Guardian, 5. Nigerian Institute of International Affairs.

Babandede, M. (2018). Irregular Migration: Threat to National Security. Daily Trust, published on Wednesday 07 February, 2018.

Babatunde, O.A. (2009). National Security and Migration: towards an Effective Cross-Border Management in Nigeria. Geneva: International Organization for Migration.

Bugaje, U. (2019). Northern Nigeria’s Security Challenges and the Way Out. A Communiqué for a Conference on Comprehensive Approach to Addressing Northern Nigeria’s Security Challenges, held in Kaduna between 1st and 2nd July.

Chhangani, R.C. (1983). Causes, Consequences and Characteristics of Ilegal Immigrants. In Illegal Aliens under Nigerian Law, (Eds.) Exclusive distributor, Proveen Enterprises, pp:17-32. 1SBN No 1630974

Dahiru, I. (2017). The Impact of Migration on the Socio-Economic Development of Kano State (2010-2015). Unpublished B.Sc Project, Department of Political Science, Bayero University, Kano.

Dambazau, A.B. (2007). Criminology and Criminal Justice. Ibadan: Spectrum Books Ltd.

Edem, O. (2010). The Nigerian State and National Security. Retrieved from http://www.nigerdeltacongress.com/narticles/nigerian_state_and_national _secu.htm (accessed 19/05/2016).

Ering, S.O. (2011). Trans-Border Crimes and Its Socio-economic Impact on Developing Economies. Journal of Sociology and Anthropology, 2(2), 78-82.

Federal Government of Nigeria (2015). National Migration Policy. Abuja: International Organization for Migration.

Igbuzor, O. (2011) Peace and Security Education: A critical Factor for Sustainable, Peace and National Development. International Journal of Peace and Development Studies, 2 (1), 61-69.

International Organization for Migration (IOM) (2010). Mainstreaming Migration into Development Planning: A Handbook for Policy-makers and Practitioners. Global Migration Group, IOM, Geneva. Available from https://publications.iom.int/books/mainstreaming-migration development-planning-handbook-policymakers-and-practitioners. (Access On 27th March, 2020).

International Organization of Migration (2004).International Migration Law. Glossary on migration.3.Available from:www.iomvienna.at/sites/default/files/IML-1-EN.PDF.

International Organization of Migration (2014). Irregular Migration and Cross Border Cooperation.3- 6.International Dialogue Report. Retrieved from https://nigeria.iom.int/sites/default/files/newsletter/Annex%20XXVl%20%20Report20 of%20International%20%Dialogue%20on%20irregular%20Migration%Crossborder%20cooperation.pdf

Joshua, I. A. & Makama, J. G. (2017). Is illegal migration on the rise among Nigerians? A wake-up call!. Achieves of Medicine and Surgery, 2 (2), 35 -37. Online available from: http://www.archms.org/text.asp?2017/2/2/35/231626. [Accessed on 02 June, 2019].

Mohammed, Y.A. (2016). Cause and consequence of cross border illegal migration from South Wollo, Ethiopia. Journal of Arts and Social Sciences, 1 (8): 2-20.

Muhammad, Y.U. (2016). Trans-Border Crimes and Its Implications on Nigeria’s National Security. Unpublished Paper Presented at the 11th Annual National Conference of the School of Arts and Social Sciences, Federal College of Education, Kano, held between 30th May – 3rd June, 2016.

Musa, N. M., (2011, September 17). Immigration Repatriates 230 illegal aliens over Boko Haram menace. The Guardian.8.

Musa, S. & Arostar, J. B. (2017). The Role of Social Studies Education to Curb Insecurity for National Development. Nigerian Journal of Social Studies and Civic Education, 1(1):96 -101.

National Bureau for Statistics (2018). Youth unemployment in Nigeria. Online available from: http://www.nigeriastat.gov.ng. [Accessed on 02 June, 2019].

National Bureau for Statistics; (2018). Available from: http://www.nigeriastat.gov.ng. [Last accessed on 2019 June 30].

Nduneche, G. (2016 September 14). Tribulations of Nigerian migrants. Thisday, 18.

Okeaghene, E. P. (2017). International Migration and the Study of Socio-Economic Development in Nigeria: The Role of Nigeria Immigration Service. Unpublished Dissertation, Department of Political Science and International Relations, Convenant University, Ota, Ogun State, Nigeria.

Okene, A.A. (2010). ‘National Security, Good Governance and Integration in Nigeria’. A Lead Paper presented at the 6th Annual National conference of the School of Arts and Social Sciences, Federal College of Education, Kano, on 13th July, 2010.

Rezouni, S. (2010). Illegal migration causes, consequences and National security Implementations. Strategy Research Project.

Sunday, O.V.O. & Okechukwu, O.R. (2014). Cross-Border Crimes in West African Sub-Region: Implications for Nigeria’s National Security and External Relations. Global Journal of Human and Social Science (f), 14(3), 45-57.

UNICEF (2007). The Nigeria Situation. Available from: http://www.unicef.org/nigeria/1971_2199.html. [Accessed on 02 June, 2019].

World Population Review (2018). Nigeria Population. Available from: http://www.worldpopulationreview.com/countries/nigeria-population. [Last accessed on 2019 June 30].

Yahaya, J. U., Liman, A. N. & Adadu, Y. (2018). An Assessment of Challenges Faced by Security Agencies in Fighting Proliferation of Small Arms and Light Weapons in Kano State, Nigeria. International Journal of Social Science Studies, 6 (7), 47-56.

Yakeen, A. (2017). Over 1,500 Migrants Have Died in Mediterranean in 2017 and Many are Nigerians. International Centre for Investigative Reporting; 13 August, 2017.

Published
2021-01-25
How to Cite
Muhammad, Y. U. (2021). The Irregular Migration and Security Challenges in North Western Nigeria. The International Journal of Social Sciences World (TIJOSSW), 3(01), 1-14. Retrieved from https://www.growingscholar.org/journal/index.php/TIJOSSW/article/view/56
Section
Articles